近期,网上关于“小学一年级上册语文统编教材比较难”的观点引发了大众的关注和讨论。为何会有这样的看法,小学语文一年级统编教材到底难不难?针对这一问题,记者日前采访了儿童阅读研究专家、(,)李虹教授,小学语文统编教材执行主编陈先云以及内蒙古林西县王秀梅和河北省平山县秦韶华两名农村学校一线语文教师,听听他们怎么说。

Recently, the online on \"the first grade of primary school language unified compilation of teaching materials more difficult\" views have attracted public attention and discussion. Why would there be such a view that the primary school language first grade unified compilation of teaching materials after all difficult? In response to this question, the reporter recently interviewed children reading research experts,(,) Professor Li Hong, primary school language compilation textbook executive editor-in-chief Chen Xianyun, Linxi County, Inner Mongolia Wang Ximei and Pingshan County, Hebei Province Qin Shaohua two rural school language teachers, listen to them.

  针对网上有关识字难度加大的观点,陈先云介绍说:“与人教版课标实验一年级上册教材相比,统编语文教材一年级上册的识字量要求已经从400个字减少到300个字,从识字量来看,不仅没有增加,反而是大大减少了。”

\"Compared with the first-year experimental textbook, the first-year literacy requirement has been reduced from 400 words to 300 words,\" Chen said.

  作为研究儿童阅读的教育心理学工作者,李虹教授曾经对小学语文教材进行过系统研究。她分析过原人教版等多个版本的小学语文教材和现行的统编语文教材,统计了每个版本教材中每一册识字表和写字表的生字数量。根据统计数据显示,现行统编语文教材小学一年级上册的识字量比其他版本的都要低,写字量基本持平。那为什么还有人觉得一年级学生识字难呢?李虹告诉记者,因为小学一年级是先学生活中常用的高频字,再学低频字,先学笔画少、结构简单的独体字,然后合体字才慢慢多起来。而汉字中很多高频字的历史演变十分复杂,导致其构字规律不明显,比如,有的高频形声字中声旁表音和形旁表意的特点不突出,再加上初学汉字的学生对汉字的笔画、结构相对陌生,也没有足够的正字法意识和独体字知识作为基础,所以学起来有一定难度。

As an educational psychologist who studies children's reading, Professor Li Hong has systematically studied Chinese teaching materials in primary schools. She has analyzed several versions of primary school language teaching materials such as the original edition and the current compiled language teaching materials, and counted the number of new characters in each volume of literacy and writing tables in each edition of the textbook. According to statistics, the first grade of the current Chinese language textbook primary school literacy is lower than the other versions of the volume of literacy, writing is basically the same. Why would anyone find it difficult for a freshman to read? Li Hong told reporters, because the first grade of primary school is to first learn the commonly used high-frequency characters in life, and then learn low-frequency characters, first learn less strokes, simple structure of the single character, and then fit the word slowly more. However, the historical evolution of many high-frequency characters in Chinese characters is very complicated, which leads to the fact that the rules of their construction are not obvious. For example, some high-frequency characters are not characterized by sound side-by-side and shape-by-side ideographic characters.

  内蒙古赤峰市林西县繁荣寄宿制小学的王秀梅老师认为,一年级上册会认300个字、会写100个字,教材的要求对于他们这样的农村寄宿制小学来说难度是适中的。因为这些字基本上都是生活中常用常见的字,呈现形式也很生动。比如,“日月水火”这一课,学生通过看图的方式来认读本课的8个生字,一点儿都不难。

Mr. wang xiumei, of thriving boarding school in linxi county, chifeng city, inner mongolia, believes that the first grade book will recognize 300 words and write 100 words, and the requirements of teaching materials are moderately difficult for such rural boarding primary schools as theirs. Because these words are basically common words in life, the presentation form is also very vivid. For example, in this lesson, it is not difficult for students to read the eight new words in this lesson by looking at pictures.

  河北省石家庄市平山县两河胡村小学的秦韶华老师分享了自己的经验:“如果遇到某一课要写的字比较集中怎么办?比如,写字最多的一课有5个字,可以把它们分开,第一节课随堂解决2个字,下一节课再解决后3个字,这样学生学起来就不难了。”

Teacher Qin Shaohua of Lianghe Hu Cun Primary School in Pingshan County, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province shared his experience:\" What if the words to be written in a certain lesson are more concentrated? For example, the most written class has five words, which can be separated, the first class will solve two words with the class, and the next class will solve the next three words, so that it is not difficult for students to learn.

  “如果不计算相关栏目中的选文,一年级上册的课文数是24篇,而原来人教版课标实验一年级上册教材课文数是28篇。”陈先云介绍说。

“If you don't count the selections in the relevant column, the number of texts in the first grade is 24, and the number of texts in the first grade of the first grade is 28. Chen Xianyun introduced.

  课文从28篇减少到了24篇,为什么还会有人觉得阅读难度大呢?李虹教授及其研究团队收集了4个版本小学语文教材里的每一篇文章,建立了一个约80万字的语料库,通过分析每一篇课文的字数、字种、字频、词数、词种、词频、虚词比例、句长等多个数据,创建了一个可以计算汉语文本难易程度的可读性公式。他们用公式计算了统编语文教材一年级上册每一篇文章(含课文和拼音、“语文园地”中的选文等)的难度,结果发现,大部分文章的难度和之前的人教版课标实验教材很接近,只有少数几篇文章,数据统计显示难度稍高,但这几篇文章有其特定的编排目的。如《项链》一课的难度主要体现在句长,但选用这篇带有长句子的文章,是为了配合课文《雨点儿》,继续培养学生“读好句子的停顿”的能力。《小蜗牛》是一年级上册最后一课,大家看到文章长了,但课文以季节变化为线索,部分内容反复出现,段落形式一致,学生只要理解了一个段落,就能举一反三理解全文,实际理解难度并不大。《猴子捞月亮》和《拔萝卜》等文章偏长,但编排在“和大人一起读”栏目中,并不要求学生自己阅读,而是希望教师或家长读给学生听,以此激发阅读兴趣、培养阅读习惯,为学生今后的独立阅读打下基础。因此,教材中不同文本的教学要求是不一样的,这是教师和家长需要注意的。

The text has been reduced from 28 to 24. Why would anyone find reading difficult? Professor Li Hong and his research team collected each of the four versions of the primary school Chinese textbook, and set up a corpus of about 800,000 words. By analyzing the number of words, type, frequency, word type, word type, word frequency, function word proportion and sentence length of each text, a readable formula for calculating the difficulty degree of the Chinese text was created. They used the formula to calculate the difficulty of every article in the first grade of the Chinese textbook (including the text and Pinyin, the selection of articles in the Chinese Garden, etc.), and found that the difficulty of most of the articles was very close to that of the previous experimental textbook, only a few articles, the data statistics showed that the difficulty was slightly higher, but these articles had a specific purpose. (1)(2)(2)(2)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4 \"Little Snail\" is the last lesson in the first grade, but the passage is long, but the text takes the seasonal change as the clue, some of the content appears repeatedly, the paragraph form is consistent, the student only understood a paragraph, can draw a lesson from one another to understand the full text, the actual understanding is not difficult. \"The Monkey Catching the Moon\" and \"Pulling the Carrot\" are long articles, but in the \"Reading with Adults\" column, students are not required to read by themselves, but rather, teachers or parents are expected to read them to students, so as to stimulate reading interest, cultivate reading habits, and lay the foundation for students to read independently in the future. Therefore, the teaching requirements of different texts in the teaching materials are different, which teachers and parents need to pay attention to.

  陈先云认为,小学语文统编教材设置的一些栏目有其不同的教学目标。比如说“日积月累”,主要是让学生初步感受中华优秀传统文化,在教师的帮助下通过朗读、记忆来积累。一年级上册第4单元的“日积月累”:“一年之计在于春,一日之计在于晨。一寸光阴一寸金,寸金难买寸光阴。”简短的4句话,就让学生从小知道要珍惜光阴。再如“和大人一起读”栏目,主要是考虑到一年级幼小衔接的特点,通过和大人一起读来激发学生的阅读兴趣,不要求学生独立阅读。因为一年级学生识字量还很少,很难做到独立阅读。所以《猴子捞月亮》这篇文章,学生能在大人的帮助下阅读,借助插图大致了解故事的意思即可,教师或家长在指导学生学习时不要拔高要求。只要在大人的帮助下,学生借助拼音能把课文读下去就可以,即使有一些词语、有一些句子读不懂也没有关系。随着学生识字量的增加、阅读能力的提高,他们能慢慢地由不懂到懂、由不会到会。

Chen Xianyun believes that some columns of the primary school language textbook have different teaching objectives. For example,\" cumulative \", mainly to let students initially feel the Chinese excellent traditional culture, with the help of teachers through reading, memory to accumulate. Unit 4 of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Day of the First Year of the First Year of the First Day of the First Day of the First One inch of time and one inch of gold is hard to buy. Short 4 sentences, let the students know from childhood to cherish the time. Again such as \"read with adults\" column, mainly considering the characteristics of the first grade young and young cohesion, through reading with adults to stimulate students'interest in reading, do not require students to read independently. Because the literacy of first grade students is still very small, it is difficult to read independently. Therefore, the \"Monkey Catch the Moon\" article, students can read with the help of adults, with the help of illustrations to understand the general meaning of the story, teachers or parents in the guidance of students do not ask for higher requirements. As long as with the help of adults, students can use Pinyin to read the text, even if there are some words, some sentences do not understand it does not matter. With the increase of students'literacy and reading ability, they can slowly change from ignorance to understanding and from not to attend the meeting.

  李虹认为,学习课文的目的主要是培养学生的阅读能力,而增加阅读量是非常重要的。只有通过大量阅读,才能帮助学生提高词汇量,积累背景知识等。就字词而言,同一个词语往往有多个义项,在不同的语境中,其含义和作用也不相同。只有通过大量阅读,学生才会有机会接触到足够多样、足够丰富的词语使用的具体情境。

Li Hong believes that the main purpose of learning the text is to cultivate students'reading ability, and it is very important to increase the amount of reading. Only by reading a lot can we help students improve their vocabulary and accumulate background knowledge and so on. As far as words are concerned, the same word often has multiple meanings, and its meanings and functions are different in different contexts. Only by reading extensively will students have access to specific situations in which words are sufficiently diverse and abundant.

  王秀梅、秦韶华两位老师对于统编语文教材的栏目设置给予了肯定,特别是“和大人一起读”栏目。她们认为,学生在幼儿园时期最喜欢听故事,最爱听大人给他们讲故事。而“和大人一起读”这个栏目的设立,正体现了“幼小衔接”理念。通过共同阅读,学生和大人之间不仅能进行语言交流和情感沟通,更能体会到语文的学习和生活中的快乐时光是融合在一起的,体会到语文学习的趣味性和重要性。

Wang xiumei, qin shaohua two teachers on the compilation of chinese teaching materials column settings to give affirmation, especially \"read with adults\" column. They believe that students like to hear stories most in kindergarten, and they like to hear stories from adults. And \"read with adults\" the establishment of this column, is reflected in the \"young convergence\" concept. Through reading together, students and adults cannot only carry out language communication and emotional communication, but also realize that the learning of Chinese and the happy time in life are merged together, and realize the interest and importance of Chinese learning.

  “一年级上册总共有6首古诗,有的出现在课文中,有的出现在语文园地‘日积月累’栏目中。从教材的编排意图来看,我觉得古诗只要学生在熟读的基础上达到记住的目的就可以了。”王秀梅说。在学《古朗月行》这首古诗时,王秀梅先示范诵读,然后让学生闭上眼睛想象,学生在想象画面的过程中,她再描述这首诗的意境,在此基础上,学生跟着王老师一起朗读。在这样互动交流的过程中,学生很容易就把《古朗月行》这首诗背下来了。

“There are six ancient poems in the first grade, some in the text and some in the'accumulation'section of the Chinese garden. From the arrangement of the textbook, I think the ancient poetry can be remembered as long as the students are familiar with it. said Wang. In learning the ancient poem "Gu Lang Yue Xing ", Wang Xiumei first demonstrated reading, and then let the students close their eyes to imagine that the students in the process of imagining the picture, she again described the artistic conception of the poem, on this basis, the students read with teacher Wang. In the course of such an interactive exchange, it is easy for students to memorize the poem "Long Moon Walk ".

  “教材难或不难这个问题,是非常主观的。仁者见仁,智者见智,或者说会者不难,难者不会。”李虹说。她从研究者角度分析,认为网上一些人觉得语文教材难,主要原因有两点:第一是汉语的特殊性,因为汉字是方块文字,不表音,基本的书写符号不是字母,学生需要掌握常用的2500个汉字,每个汉字都要学习它怎么读、怎么写,所以汉语的阅读学习是相对较难的,这就决定了在不同的语言环境中,学生什么时候能学会阅读的时间点也是不一样的。第二点是教材的不同栏目有不同的目标设计和教学要求,教师要把握学生的个体差异,充分利用教材的梯度设计,让学起来较轻松的学生“吃得饱”,觉得学习有挑战性;让学起来需要一定时间的学生“学得稳”,觉得学习有成就感。这样才能够帮助他们成为积极的学习者,这些对教师来说是一个挑战。

“The problem of teaching materials difficult or not difficult is very subjective. Those who are different, those who are different, those who are wise, or those who are good, are not bad. said Li Hong. She points out from the researcher's point of view that some people on the Internet find Chinese teaching materials difficult, mainly for two reasons: the first is the particularity of Chinese, because Chinese characters are square characters, do not express sound, the basic writing symbols are not letters, students need to master the commonly used 2500 Chinese characters, each Chinese character has to learn how to read and how to write, so it is relatively difficult to learn Chinese reading, which determines when students can learn to read in different language environments is also different. The second point is that different columns of teaching materials have different goal design and teaching requirements, teachers should grasp the individual differences of students, make full use of the gradient design of teaching materials, so that students who learn more easily can "eat enough" and feel that learning is challenging. Only in this way can they become active learners, which is a challenge for teachers.

  陈先云告诉记者,对于网上反映的小学语文一年级教材的一些问题,已经通过不同形式的教材培训向教研员和一线教师们做了一些说明,比如说教材编写理念是什么、各个栏目承载着什么样的功能。同时在教师教学用书中,对教材的编排意图、教学目标要求与教学建议也都有详细的说明。对于一线教师而言,首要的工作就是吃透教材,借助教师教学用书等材料,深入了解教材的编排意图,从学情出发,认清教学目标,明确“教什么”和“怎么教”,这样才能用好统编教材。

Chen Xianyun told reporters that some of the problems reflected in the online primary school language first grade teaching materials have been through different forms of teaching materials training to the teaching and research staff and front-line teachers, such as what the concept of textbook writing, each column carries what kind of function. At the same time, in the teacher's teaching book, the teaching material arrangement intention, the teaching goal request and the teaching suggestion also have the detailed explanation. For the first-line teachers, the primary work is to eat through the teaching materials, with the help of teachers teaching books and other materials, in-depth understanding of the textbook layout intention, starting from the learning situation, clear teaching objectives, clear \"what to teach\" and \"how to teach \", so as to make good use of the textbook.

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